The Journal of Environment and Aquatic Resources is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary journal produced annually by the Mindanao State University at Naawan devoted to the publication of research and development studies on the environment, including the human components such as social sciences, humanities and education, and the natural resources. It features scientific papers and articles on the environment and ecological research; terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity; fisheries resource assessment; environmental, socio-economic and policy studies; and development work in coastal resource management and environmental governance.

Articles must be submitted as electronic files to the Editor-in-chief through Upon submission, a cover letter addressed to the Editor-in-chief must be included, stating the following:

1) All authors agree to its submission and the Corresponding author has been authorized by co-authors;

2) The Article has not been published before and is not concurrently being considered for publication elsewhere;

3) This Article does not violate any copyright or other proprietary right of any person or entity and it contains no abusive, defamatory, obscene or fraudulent statements, nor any other statements that are unlawful in any way.

It will expedite the review process if names of three potential reviewers are offered, with their complete postal and email addresses.

Manuscript must conform to the “guide to authors” to minimize delay.

The manuscripts of scientific papers should not exceed 25 pages and must be double-spaced.

Short papers (notes), which represent a preliminary report or give an account of a significant finding may be given priority and published rapidly under “Notes and Information”. It should not be more than five printed pages in length (approximately 10 manuscript pages), including an abstract of 100 words or less, text, tables, figures and literature cited. The Editors reserve the right to decide whether a manuscript qualifies as a “Note”.

The Journal also publishes reviewed articles. Authors should immediately submit the full manuscript.

Files should be sent in word processor format. In preparing the text file observe the following rules: 1) Input the text continuously; enter returns only at the end of paragraphs or headings, subheadings, lists, etc.; 2) Enter text in the style and order of the Journal; 3) Indicate clearly any special character that you have drawn by hand; 4) Use single space after each sentence within a paragraph. Electronic version must correspond with the final printout sent to the Editor. In case of a mismatch between e-file and the final copy, the latter will be taken as the definitive version.

Papers sent to the authors for revision should be returned within a month. Rejected manuscripts will only be returned to the authors when they contain important comments from the referees. Corrections in proofs other than typographical errors shall be charged to the author. Corrected proofs should be posted back to the Editor-in-chief within two days of receipt otherwise, the Editor reserves the right to correct the proofs and send the material for publication. Authors will be given an e-reprint of their published articles free of charge. Off prints are available at P30 a copy when the galley proofs are returned.

Manuscripts should be double-spaced on an A-4 size with 2.5cm (1in) margins all around using 12-point Times New Roman font. Indent (0.5in) the first line of each paragraph. Justify text between margins. Capitalize and center major headings. Second order headings in bold, left bound. Use hanging indention (0.5in) for the literature cited. All text must be concise and consistent (e.g. spelling, abbreviations, etc.) with all pages numbered consecutively.

Arrange the text following these major headings: Title, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods (including description of the study area), Results and Discussion, Conclusion (and Recommendations), Acknowledgements, and Literature Cited.

The title should be in boldface font. The first letter of the words in the title should be capitalized. A short running title must be provided. All the authors’ names and their respective affiliation must be indicated. The email address and the telephone/fax number of the corresponding author must be indicated.

The abstract should not be more than 250 words. It should contain the background of the study, the objectives, methods, and the results and the conclusion. It is to be followed by a maximum of five keywords.

The complete scientific name (genus, species and authority) should be cited for every organism when first mentioned. Subsequently, the generic name should be abbreviated to the initial except when stated as the first word in a sentence and where intervening references to other genera would cause confusion. Latin names and other non-English names such as local names should be in italic script.

Author(s) are required to use the International System of Units (SI) for exact measures of physical quantities. Do not use space between numbers and units, e.g. 10g, 15%, 25mm, 120cm, 120ml. Be consistent in the number of decimals used. The numbers one to ten should be spelled out if not followed by a unit. For numbers higher than ten numerals should be spelled out. Only at the start of a sentence all numbers should be spelled out.

Figures and tables should be imbedded in the text where appropriate. In preparing tables, plates (all photographs) and figures (illustrations, graphs, diagrams), consider the journals printed page of 18.0 x 26.0cm and the necessary reduction. Photographs (plates) should have high quality resolution and are not stretched. The first row of the table should have border on top and below of the row. The bottom of the table also bordered. Captions left bound, bold, justified. Figure captions should be at the bottom of the figure while table captions should be at the top of the table. In the captions, spell the words figure, table and plate out. E.g. Figure 1. Increase in weight from January to December 2004. Abbreviate the words table and figure in the reference to it. E.g. Animals grew much faster in the first half of the year (Fig. 1). The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures. Photographs (plates) should be of good contrast and well matched for tonal range. Micrographs should have an internal calibration bar and the magnification should be mounted together in the form of not numerically but economically arranged layouts.

Citation and Literature Cited

The Literature Cited should consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals. Citations of unpublished reports and theses should be minimized. Articles “in press” may be cited but those “submitted” or “in preparation” should not be included. Pers. Comm. should only be in the text but not be in the list of literature cited. The citation should provide the full name of the person, year of communication, affiliation, e.g. Dr. Filipina Sotto, 2005, University of San Carlos, Cebu).

Arrange citations in the text by authors and year. Use comma between author and year, and semicolon between a series of citations. E.g. Lee (1996a, 1996b) or (Kim, 1994; Boo and Lee, 1995; Kim et al., 1996).

The list of literature cited should be in alphabetical order according to the first author. When more than one paper has the same first author, the arrangement should be made as follows:

Single author --- Chronological order

Two authors --- Alphabetical order according to the second author, then chronologically

Three or more authors --- Chronological order

First name initials are placed after the last name and separated by a comma except for the last author. The initials of the last author should be placed before the last name. Do not use space between first name initials. E.g. Hendler, G., Miller, J.E., Pawson, D.L. and P.M. Kier.

Follow the standard form of citation as below:

Journal Article

Either abbreviate all titles of journals following international standards (accessible through internet) or spell all titles out.

Author(s). year. Title of article (capitalize only names and places). Journal title, Volume number (issue number): inclusive pages.


Brown, R.M., A.C. Diesmos. and A.C. Alcala. 2001. The state of Philippine herpetology and the challenges for the next decade. Silliman Journal, 42(1): 18-87. 3

Goulet, T.L. and M.A. Coffroth. 2004. The genetic identity of dinoflagellate symbionts in Caribbean octocorals. Coral Reefs, 23: 465-472.


Author(s) or Editor(s). year. Title of book (capitalize). Publisher, place of publication, total page number.


Alcala, A.C. and W.C. Brown. 1998. Philippine Amphibians: An illustrated Field Guide. Bookmark, Inc., Makati City, 116 pp.

Hendler, G., J.E. Miller, D.L. Pawson and P.M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, 390 pp.

Zug, G.R., L.J. Vitt and J.P. Caldwell. 2001. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, California, 630 pp.

Chapter in book

Author(s) of chapter. year. Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) of book. Title of book (capitalize). Publisher, place of publication, inclusive pages of chapter.


Kain, J.M. and T.A. Norton. 1990. Marine ecology. In: Cole, K.M. and R.G. Sheath (eds.). Biology of Red Algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 337-422.

Wolff, W.J. 1983. Estuarine benthos. In: Ketchum, B.H. (ed.). Ecosystems of the World 26: Estuaries and Enclosed Seas. Section I: Estuaries. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, p. 51-182.

Paper in proceedings

Author(s) of paper. year. Title of paper. inclusive pages of paper. In: Editor(s) of proceedings. Title of publication or name of conference or both, inclusive dates, place of conference. Publisher, place of publication.


Compton, J. 2000. An overview of Asian turtle trade. p. 24-29. In: van Dijk, P.P., Stuart, B.L. and A.G.J. Rhodin (eds.). Asian Turtle Trade: Proceedings of a Workshop on Conservation and Trade of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Asia. Chelonian Research Monographs, 2.

Hamel, J.-F. and A. Mercier, 2001. Cuvierian tubules in tropical holothurians: Usefulness and efficiency as a defense mechanism. p. 351. In: Barker, M. (ed.). Echinoderms 2000. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, Dunedin, 31 January – 4 February 2000. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam.

Lee, S.Y., 1993. Leaf choice of sesarmine crabs, Chiromanthes bidens and C. maipoensis, in a Hong Kong mangal. p. 597-603. In: Morton, B. (ed.). The Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong University Press.

Thesis or dissertation

Author. Year of degree. Title. Type of degree, Institution granting the degree, Location of Institution, total page number.


Dolorosa, R.G. 2005. Biology of three species of mangrove-associated porcellanid crabs (Porcellanidae: Petrolisthes) in Puerto Princesa Bay, Palawan, Philippines. MS thesis in Marine Biology, Graduate School, Western Philippines University, Aborlan, Palawan, Philippines, 111 pp.

Matillano, J.D. 2003. The ichthyofauna of Lake Manguao, Taytay, Palawan, Philippine. BS thesis in Aquatic Biology, State Polytechnic College of Palawan-Puerto Princesa Campus, Palawan, Philippines, 82 pp.